ECON 545 Business Economics Complete Course and Final Exam

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ECON 545 Business Economics

 

Week 1


Week 1 DQ 1 Supply and Demand (Graded)

Let's discuss the tutorial Understanding and Applying Supply and Demand in our Lecture this week. What is the difference between a change in demand versus a change in quantity demanded? A change in supply versus a change in quantity supplied? Why is it so important to differentiate between these similar-sounding terms?

 

Week 1 DQ 1  Elasticity and the Minimum Wage (Graded)

What are your thoughts about minimum wage legislation? What kind of a price-control policy is this? Who gains? Who loses? Are there alternatives to this legislation for achieving the same policy objectives? What role do demand and supply elasticities play in determining outcomes? What are your thoughts about minimum wage legislation? What kind of a price-control policy is this? Who gains? Who loses? Are there alternatives to this legislation for achieving the same policy objectives? What role do demand and supply elasticities play in determining outcomes?

 

Week 2


Week 2 DQ 1 Marginal Analysis (Graded)

Why is marginal analysis important in economics?  How do the tutorials Basics of Marginal Analysis and Understanding and Applying Marginal Analysis at the end of this week's lecture reinforce the concepts of marginal analysis? How can any firm find the right production level which guarantees maximum profit (or minimum loss)? Why is marginal analysis important in economics?  How do the tutorials Basics of Marginal Analysis and Understanding and Applying Marginal Analysis at the end of this week's lecture reinforce the concepts of marginal analysis? How can any firm find the right production level which guarantees maximum profit (or minimum loss)?

 

Week 2 DQ 2 Controlling Costs (Graded)

Name some of the ways firms attempt to control their costs. How does your firm control costs? The key here in keeping this question interesting is that reducing the workforce or having one person do the work of three people are not the only ways to control costs. I'm looking for more creative ways. Maybe you can think of some that your firm is not currently using. Be creative here. Name some of the ways firms attempt to control their costs.

Week 2 Course Project:

Week 2 Project Part 1 Business Economics

 

Week 3


Week 3 DQ 1 Mergers/Acquisitions (Graded)

Have you ever been involved in a merger or acquisition? If so, tell us about your experiences. If not, comment on this week's tutorial, "The Private Sector." Have you ever been involved in a merger or acquisition? If so, tell us about your experiences. If not, comment on this week's tutorial, "The Private Sector."

 

Week 3 DQ 2 Anti-Trust Policy and Microsoft (Graded)

Is Microsoft a monopoly? In what ways could it be considered a monopoly? What markets are involved? What anti-trust legislation would apply? Is anti-trust legislation “fair” to firms like Microsoft? Why or why not? Is Microsoft a monopoly? In what ways could it be considered a monopoly? What markets are involved? What anti-trust legislation would apply? Is anti-trust legislation “fair” to firms like Microsoft? Why or why not?

Week 3 Quiz

Week 3 Imperfect Competition Quiz Correct Answers

Week 3 Imperfect Competition Quiz Gradebook Answers

 

Week 4


Week 4 DQ 1 Macroeconomic News (Graded)

Scour the national news media (many good sources are available online) for a juicy story in which Chapter 15 or Chapter 16 material is at the heart of the matter. The article does not have to be current. Say what the story is about and be sure to cite the source and date so that others might find it easily. Refer to the textbook sections that apply.

 

Week 4 DQ 2 Healthcare (Graded)

The healthcare sector is often cited as being fraught with just about every economic imperfection that is known to humankind. Can you identify and briefly describe ONE of these imperfections? Do you know of any examples?

 

Week 5


Week 5 DQ 1 Trade Deficits (Graded)

What have been some major causes of the large U.S. trade deficits since 1992? What is a major benefit (you could address that issue) or a major cost (or you could address that issue) associated with trade deficits? what have been some major causes of the large U.S. trade deficits since 1992? What is a major benefit (you could address that issue) or a major cost (or you could address that issue) associated with trade deficits?

 

Week 5 DQ 2 Exchange Rates (Graded)

Do a little research about foreign exchange traders. It's a big business; how do they make money? What is the relationship between FX rates and interest rates? Do a little research about foreign exchange traders. It's a big business; how do they make money? What is the relationship between FX rates and interest rates?

Week 5 Course Project:

ECON 545 Week 5 Project Part 2

 

Week 6


Week 6 DQ 1 Fiscal Policy (Graded)

What fiscal policies are required to fight unemployment? Which ones are required to fight inflation? What are some of the downside risks and potential problems involved when using fiscal policy? What fiscal policies are required to fight unemployment? Which ones are required to fight inflation? What are some of the downside risks and potential problems involved when using fiscal policy?

 

Week 6 DQ 2 Monetary Policy (Graded)

What are the monetary policies required to fight unemployment? What about those required to fight inflation? What are some of the downside risks and potential problems involved when using monetary policy? What are the monetary policies required to fight unemployment? What about those required to fight inflation? What are some of the downside risks and potential problems involved when using monetary policy?

Week 6 Assignments:

ECON 545 Week 6 Monetary and Fiscal Policy; You Decide

ECON 545 Week 6 Quiz Answers Set 1

ECON 545 Week 6 Quiz Answers Set 2

 

Week 7


Week 7 DQ 1 The Public Sector (Graded)

What is the appropriate balance between private and public (i.e., government) activity? Think of a case where the government has intervened (or it was suggested that government intervene) in a previously private market (e.g. Chrysler, tariffs on Japanese luxury cars, the airline industry, etc). What other examples can you think of? Using a marginal benefit/marginal cost analysis, support or argue against the intervention.

 

Week 7 DQ 2 Forecasting (Graded)

Let's discuss one of the most important areas of economics, namely the use of leading economic indicators to forecast the future direction of the macroeconomy.  What websites are helping you gain a better understanding of where the economy is heading in the next 12 months? Let's discuss one of the most important areas of economics, namely the use of leading economic indicators to forecast the future direction of the macroeconomy.  What websites are helping you gain a better understanding of where the economy is heading in the next 12 months?

 

Week 8 Final Exam

Set 1

  1. (TCO A) Suppose you are hired to manage a small manufacturing facility that produces Widgets. (a.) (15 points) You know from data collected on the Widget Market that market demand and market supply have both increased recently. As manager of the facility, what decisions should you make regarding production levels and pricing for your Widget facility? Remember that supply and demand are about the market supply and market demand, which is bigger than your own company. You are being given data on supply and demand for the whole market and are being asked what effect that has on you as a small part of that market. (b.) (15 points) Now, suppose that following the supply and demand changes in (a), a substitute good goes up in price, and your costs of production increase. What new decisions will you make regarding production levels and pricing for your Widget facility?
  2. (TCO B) Here is some data on the demand for marshmallows:.........(a.) (15 points) Is demand elastic or inelastic in the $6-$8 price range? How do you know? (b.) (15 points) If the table represents the demand faced by a monopoly firm, then what is that firm’s marginal revenue as it increases output from 1300 units to 2200 units? Show all work. (Be careful here!)
  3. (TCO C) You have been hired to manage a small manufacturing facility whose cost and production data are given in the table below..............(a.) (6 points) What is the marginal product of the second worker? (b.) (6 points) What is the marginal revenue product of the fourth worker? (c.) (6 points) What is the marginal cost of the first worker? (d.) (12 points) Based on your knowledge of marginal analysis, how many workers should you hire? Explain you answer.
  4. (TCO C) Answer the next questions on the basis of the following cost data for a firm in pure competition:...........(a.) (15 points) Refer to the above data. If the product price is $45 at its optimal output, will the firm realize an economic profit, break even, or incur an economic loss? How much will the profit or loss be? Show all calculations. (b.) (15 points) Refer to the above data. If the product price is $75 at its optimal output, will the firm realize an economic profit, break even, or incur an economic loss? How much will the profit or loss be? Show all calculations.
  5. (TCO D) A software producer has fixed costs of $18,000 per month and her Total Variable Costs (TVC) as a function of output Q are given below:.........(a.) (15 points) If software can only be produced in the quantities above, what should be the production level if the producer operates in a monopolistic competitive market where the price of software at each possible quantity is also listed above? Why? (Show all work). (b.) (15 points) What should be the production level if fixed costs rose to $48,000 per month? Explain.
  6. (TCO F) (a.) (20 points) Suppose nominal GDP in 1999 was $200 billion, and in 2001, it was $270 billion. The general price index in 1999 was 100 and in 2001 it was 150. Between 1999 and 2001, the real GDP rose by what percent? (b.) Use the following scenario to answer questions (b1) and (b2). In a given year in the United States, the total number of residents is 270 million, the number of residents under the age of 16 is 38 million, the number of institutionalized adults is 15 million, the number of adults who are not looking for work is 17 million, and the number of unemployed is 10 million. (b1.) (5 points) Refer to the data in the above scenario. What is the size of the labor force in the United States for the given year? (b2.) (5 points) Refer to the data in the above scenario. What is the unemployment rate in the United States for the given year?
  7. (TCO G and H) (a.) (15 points) Suppose your local Congress representative suggests that the federal government intervenes in the gasoline market to stop runaway price increases. Would you say that this view basically supports the Keynesian or the Monetarist school of thought? Why? What position would the opposing school of thought take on this issue? (Be brief -- you can answer this in 2 or 3 brief paragraphs). (b.) (10 points) Any change in the economy’s total expenditures would be expected to translate into a change in GDP that was larger than the initial change in spending. This phenomenon is known as themultiplier effect. Explain how the multiplier effect works. (c.) (15 points) You are told that 90 cents out of every extra dollar pumped into the economy goes toward consumption (as opposed to saving). Estimate the GDP impact of a positive change in government spending that equals $20 billion.
  8. (TCO G) (a.) (20 points) Third National Bank is fully loaned up with reserves of $20,000 and demand deposits equal to $100,000. The reserve ratio is 20%. Households deposit $5,000 in currency into the bank. How much excess reserves does the bank now have, and what is the maximum amount of new money that can be created in the banking system as a result of this deposit? Show all work. (b.) (20 points) What is thediscount rate in the banking system? Explain how the Fed manipulates this rate to achieve macroeconomic objectives.
  9. (TCO E and I) Let the exchange rate be defined as the number of dollars per British pound. Assume there is a decrease in U.S. interest rates relative to that of Britain. (a.) (10 points) Would this event cause the demand for the dollar to increase or decrease relative to the demand for the pound? Why? (b.) (10 points) Has the dollar appreciated or depreciated in value relative to the pound? (c.) (10 points) Does this change in the value of the dollar make imports cheaper or more expensive for Americans? Are American exports cheaper or more expensive for importers of U.S. goods in Great Britain? Illustrate by showing the price of a U.S. cell phone in Britain before and after the change in the exchange rate. (d.) (10 points) If you had a business exporting goods to Britain, and U.S. interest rates fell as they have in this example, would you plan to expand production or cut back? Why?

 

Set 2

  1. (TCO A) Suppose you are hired to manage a small manufacturing facility that produces Widgets.(a.) (15 points) You know from data collected on the Widget Market that market demand has recently increased and market supply has recently decreased. As manager of the facility, what decisions should you make regarding production levels and pricing for your Widget facility? Remember that supply and demand are about the market supply and market demand, which is bigger than your own company. You are being given data on supply and demand for the whole market and are being asked what effect that has on you as a small part of that market. (b.) (15 points) Now, suppose that following the supply and demand changes in (a), a substitute good goes up in price, and your costs of production decrease. What new decisions will you make regarding production levels and pricing for your Widget facility? (Points : 30)
  2. (TCO B) Here is some data on the demand for lettuce:...........(a.) (15 points) Is demand elastic or inelastic in the $6-$8 price range? How do you know? (b.) (15 points) If the table represents the demand faced by a monopoly firm, then what is that firm’s marginal revenue as it increases output from 160 units to 180 units? Show all work. (Be careful here!) (Points : 30)
  3. (TCO C) You have been hired to manage a small manufacturing facility whose cost and production data are given in the table below..........(a.) (6 points) What is the marginal product of the second worker? (b.) (6 points) What is the marginal revenue product of the fourth worker? (c.) (6 points) What is the marginal cost of the first worker? (d.) (12 points) Based on your knowledge of marginal analysis, how many workers should you hire? Explain you answer. (Points : 30)
  4. (TCO C) John operates a small business out of his home and has very little in terms of fixed costs. Answer the next questions (Parts A and B) on the basis of the following cost data for John’s firm operating in pure competition:...........(a.) (15 points) Refer to the above data. If the product price is $60, at its optimal output, will the firm realize an economic profit, break even, or incur an economic loss? How much will the profit or loss be? Show all calculations.(b.) (15 points) Refer to the above data. If the product price is $55 at its optimal output, will the firm realize an economic profit, break even, or incur an economic loss? How much will the profit or loss be? Show all calculations. (Points : 30)
  5. (TCO D) A software producer has fixed costs of $30,000 per month and her Total Variable Costs (TVC) as a function of output Q are given below:..........a.) (15 points) If software can only be produced in the quantities above, what should be the production level if the producer operates in a monopolistic competitive market where the price of software at each possible quantity is also listed above? Why? (Show all work.) (b.) (15 points) What should be the production level if fixed costs rose to $50,000 per month? Explain.(Points : 30)
  6. (TCO F) (a.) (20 points) Suppose nominal GDP in 1999 was $200 billion, and in 2001, it was $270 billion. The general price index in 1999 was 100 and in 2001 it was 150. Between 1999 and 2001, the real GDP rose by what percent? (b.) Use the following scenario to answer questions (b1) and (b2).In a given year in the United States, the total number of residents is 270 million, the number of residents under the age of 16 is 38 million, the number of institutionalized adults is 15 million, the number of adults who are not looking for work is 17 million, and the number of unemployed is 10 million.(b1.) (5 points) Refer to the data in the above scenario. What is the size of the labor force in the United States for the given year? (b2.) (5 points) Refer to the data in the above scenario. What is the unemployment rate in the United States for the given year?(Points : 30)
  7. (TCO G and H) (a.) (15 points) Suppose your local Congress representative suggests that the federal government intervenes in the gasoline market to stop runaway price increases. Would you say that this view basically supports the Keynesian or the Monetarist school of thought? Why? What position would the opposing school of thought take on this issue? (Be brief -- you can answer this in 2 or 3 brief paragraphs).(b.) (10 points) Any change in the economy’s total expenditures would be expected to translate into a change in GDP that was larger than the initial change in spending. This phenomenon is known as themultiplier effect. Explain how the multiplier effect works. (c.) (15 points) You are told that 90 cents out of every extra dollar pumped into the economy goes toward consumption (as opposed to saving). Estimate the GDP impact of a positive change in government spending that equals $20 billion.(Points : 40)
  8. (TCO G) (a.) Reserve requirement for banks is set at 5%. Your firm deposits its profits of $28,000 into the Third National Bank. (10 points) How much excess reserve does your deposit generate for the bank?(10 points) What is the maximum amount of new money that can be created in the banking system as a result of this deposit? Show all work. (b.) (10 points) What is the Federal Funds Rate in the banking system? (10 points) Explain how the Fed manipulates this rate in order to achieve macroeconomic objectives. (Points : 40)
  9. (TCOs E and I) Let the exchange rate be defined as the number of dollars per Japanese yen. Assume that there is a relatively lower rate of inflation in the U.S. relative to that of Japan.(a.) (10 points) Would this event cause the demand for the dollar to increase or decrease relative to the demand for the yen? Why? (b.) (10 points) Has the dollar appreciated or depreciated in value relative to the yen? (c.) (10 points) Does this change in the value of the dollar make imports cheaper or more expensive for Americans? Are American exports cheaper or more expensive for importers of U.S. goods in Japan? Illustrate by showing the price of a U.S. e-reader in Japan, before and after the change in the exchange rate. (d.) (10 points) If you had a business exporting goods to Japan, and U.S. inflation fell as discussed above in this example, would you plan to expand production or cut back? Why? (Points : 40)

 

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